Types of Quorum Modes

Only nodes in the cluster have a vote Quorum is maintained when more than half the nodes are online The nodes in the cluster and a witness disk have a vote Quorum is maintained when more than half the votes are online The nodes in the cluster and a witness file share have a vote Quorum is maintained when more than half the votes are online Only the quorum-shared disk has a vote Quorum is maintained when the shared disk is online With the exception of the No Majority Disk Only mode, all quorum...

Configuring an iSCSI Storage Connection

In some environments, you might choose iSCSI as the SAN storage solution due to its low cost of entry, and adequate performance. This lesson describes the iSCSI components on a Windows Server 2008 computer, and explains how to configure them. Windows Server 2008 iSCSI Components Windows Server 2008 includes three iSCSI components Can either be hardware or software-based, and provides a client to the iSCSI storage. Hardware-based iSCSI initiators are typically iSCSI HBA. Windows Server 2008...

Using a Nonauthoritative Restore

Use a non-authoritative restore when a single node in the cluster has been damaged or rebuilt, and the rest of the cluster is operating properly. Perform a non-authoritative restore by restoring the system recovery (system state) information to the damaged node. When you restart that node, it will join the cluster and receive the latest cluster configuration automatically. For more information, see Failover Clustering Help Restoring to a Failover Cluster from Backup

The Cluster Validation Test System Configuration

The system configuration test validates Active Directory configuration System configuration tests analyze selected servers to determine whether they are properly configured to work together in a failover cluster. The Validate a Configuration Wizard performs the following system configuration tests Validates that each tested server is in the same domain and organizational unit. It also validates that all tested servers are domain controllers, or are member servers. To change the domain role of a...

Failover Cluster Infrastructure Requirements

Failover clusters depend on infrastructure services, and require that each server node must be in the same Active Directory domain and, if you use DNS, the nodes should use the same Domain Name System DNS servers for name resolution. We recommend that you install the same Windows Server 2008 features and roles on each node. In addition, you should not install the Active Directory Domain Services AD DS role on any of the cluster nodes. If you install the AD DS role on one of the nodes, you must...

The Cluster Validation Test Storage

The storage test validates Disk access latency SCSI device vital product data VPD The storage tests list and test the capabilities of all disks available to the cluster. These tests are comprehensive however, some specific tests may not run after the cluster is running nor in a multi-site cluster. The Validate a Configuration Wizard performs the following storage validation Lists all disks that are visible to one or more tested servers. The test lists Disks that can support clustering and can...

Windows Server NLB Features

Network connectivity with support for - Network Driver Interface Specification NDIS 6.0 - Multiple dedicated IP addresses per node Support for up to 32 computers per cluster Denial of service attack and timer starvation protection Support for rolling upgrades from Windows Server 2003 All NLB components support IPv6 addresses. You can configure the addresses as the primary cluster IP address, the dedicated IP addresses, and the virtual IP addresses. In addition, you can load balance IPv6 as...

Exercise Identifying Fibre Channel Storage Area Network SAN Components

The main task for this exercise is to identify components and points of failure Tailspin Toys is designing a simple Fibre Channel-based storage area network that will initially include a file server cluster. You are given the preliminary diagram of the new SAN, and have been asked to identify where the Host Bus Adaptors HBAs , switches, storage controller, and failure points might be. 1. Identify each component in the diagram using the word list shown. 2. Identify any single points of failure....

Exercise Clustering the File Services Role on Windows Server Core

Fabrikam has two servers with Server Core installed that you must configure as a failover cluster. You have to cluster a file service on these two servers. The Print Services role already is installed on VAN-CORE6Aand VAN-CORE6B. The iSCSI target also has been added to the server that you will use as the file share. The main tasks for this exercise are to Start the virtual machines, and then log on. Configure the iSCSI target mappings and shared drives on VAN-CORE6A. Configure the iSCSI target...

File share witness allows a node cluster with no shared disk

Node And File Share Witness

Single file server can serve as the witness for multiple clusters Single file server can serve as the witness for multiple clusters The Node and File Share Majority mode can help maintain quorum without adding another node to the cluster. To provide for a single site failure and allow automatic failover, the file share witness might need to exist at a third site. In a multi-site cluster, a single server can host the file share witness however, you must create a separate file share for each...

Failover Cluster Storage Requirements

All cluster storage device controllers must be identical, and use the same firmware version on each node Separate networks are required for client access, and to access iSCSI storage Storage drivers must be based on the Microsoft Storport driver model All multipathing solutions must be based on Microsoft Multipath I O MPIO Storage is one of the most critical components in a failover cluster and requires The mass-storage controllers match in each server node, in model, and in firmware versions....

Using Windows Server Backup to Back Up the Cluster Configuration

Windows Server Backup is the built-in backup and recovery software for Windows Server 2008. In order to complete a successful backup, be aware of the following For a backup to succeed in a failover cluster, the cluster must be running and must have quorum. In other words, enough nodes must be running and communicating perhaps with a witness disk or witness file share, depending on the quorum configuration, that the cluster has achieved quorum. You must back up all clustered applications. If you...

Using Preferred Owners

Considerations for using preferred owners Preferred owners are set on the clustered application Multiple preferred owners can be set in an ordered list Setting preferred owners gives control over - The order in which an application will select a node to run on - Which applications can run on the same nodes in an Active Active configuration You can create a preferred owners list in order to control which nodes host clustered applications. Using preferred owners ensures that applications run on...

Benefits of Server Core Clustering

Server Core requires less maintenance than a full installation, because it installs fewer components. It also has a reduced attack surface, which allows fewer components to be exploited, and requires fewer updates if vulnerabilities are discovered. Server Core also requires less disk space and memory, which frees more resources for the clustered applications and services. For more information, see Windows Server 2008 Product Overview

Managing a Failover Cluster

Built-in management tools enable you to manage a cluster. This lesson outlines the failover cluster management options that help you maintain and configure the cluster. To manage the cluster, you can use either the Failover Cluster Management tool or the cluster.exe command line tool. Typically, you will use the Failover Cluster Management tool however, in addition to management tasks, you might use the command line tool for in-depth troubleshooting and logging activities. You must use the...

Considerations for Configuring NLB

Install multiple network cards to increase performance and provide redundancy Choose a cluster operations mode that is compatible with your network devices Use the load weight option on port rules to distribute client connections between cluster hosts Use single affinity for applications that require Secure Sockets Layer SSL connections, or multiple client connections Install the same server certificate on all cluster hosts that must support SSL connections Install the same server certificate...

Exercise Configuring Cluster Resources

Fabrikam has two servers configured as a failover cluster. You have to cluster the Print Services role on these two servers. The Print Services role already is installed on VAN-SRV6A and VAN-SRV6B. The main tasks for this exercise are to Change the preferred owner of VAN-Print to VAN-SRV6B. Change the failback settings to allow only failback to the preferred node between 01 00 and 04 00. Close all virtual machines, and discard undo disks. Task 1 Change the preferred owner of VAN-Print to...

Clustering Terminology

A server that participates in a cluster A device or service hosted on a cluster and accessed directly or indirectly by the application or end user A highly available clustering type with resources owned by a single server at a time A clustering type that distributes processing across a number of nodes A key component of clusters that withstands problems in hardware or software while continuing to operate The amount of time an application is unavailable due to an update or other maintenance The...

Comparing Unicast and Multicast NLB Cluster Operation Modes

The cluster operation mode is used to ensure that all cluster hosts receive all incoming client requests sent to the virtual IP address assigned to the cluster All cluster hosts share an identical unicast media access control MAC address The outgoing MAC address is modified, based on the cluster host's priority setting, to prevent switches from discovering that all cluster hosts have the same MAC address Each cluster host retains the original adapter MAC address The adapter is assigned a...

Choosing a Quorum Mode

The most important reason for implementing failover clusters is to provide high availability for services and applications. Windows Server 2008 failover clusters use a quorum to ensure that enough members are available for the cluster to continue operating. In order to implement and manage failover clusters, you must understand the options that are available for configuring quorums. This lesson describes how quorum works in Windows Server 2008 failover clusters. The failover cluster quorum...

Task Perform an authoritative restore

Start an administrator-elevated command prompt. 2. Run wbadmin get versions to list the backups that have been completed. 3. Locate the backup that was just performed, by matching the Backup Time with the time that the backup was performed. Note the version identifier for the backup. 4. Run wbadmin start recovery -version 07 27 2007-19 21 -itemtype app -items cluster where the version information matches the version noted in the previous step, to start the restore. 5. After the restore is...

Using Event Viewer to Monitor Failover Clusters

Found in Applications and Services Logs Microsoft Windows FailoverClustering When problems arise in the cluster, use the Event Viewer to view events with a Critical, Error, or Warning severity level. Additionally, informational level events are logged to the Failover Clustering Operations log, which can be found in the Event Viewer in the Applications and Services Logs Microsoft Windows folder. Informational-level events are usually common cluster operations, such as cluster nodes leaving and...

Exercise Configuring Internet SCSI iSCSI Storage Connections

The main tasks for this exercise are to Start the virtual machines. Add the iSCSI target portal to 6423A-VAN-SRV3A. Add a persistent binding on 6423A-VAN-SRV3A. Add the iSCSI target portal to 6423A-VAN-SRV3B. Add a persistent binding on 6423A-VAN-SRV3B. Task 1 Start the virtual machines 1. Open the 6423A Lab Launcher. 2. Start the 6423A-VAN-DC1 virtual machine. 3. Start the 6423A-VAN-SRV3A virtual machine. 4. Start the 6423A-VAN-SRV3B virtual machine. Task 2 Add the iSCSI target portal to...

Using Clusterexe to Export the Cluster

Cluster.exe provides a cluster log for the entire cluster, or for a specific node in the cluster in a readable text format. The output from Cluster.exe is more flexible than Tracerpt.exe, because you can export trace logs for all nodes in the cluster and save them in a specified location. You can view the exported log using a text editor. To run successfully, Cluster.exe must be run from an administrator-elevated command prompt. Using the Reliability and Performance Monitor Snap-in The...

Using Event Tracing

Windows event tracing is a kernel component that is available early after startup, and late into shutdown. It is designed to allow for fast tracing and delivery of events to trace files and to consumers. Because it is designed to be fast, it allows only basic in-process filtering of events based on event attributes. The event trace log contains a comprehensive accounting of the failover cluster actions. Depending on how you want to view the data, use either Cluster.exe or Tracerpt.exe to access...

Key Points

To troubleshoot SAN issues, start by checking physical connections and each of the hardware component logs. Additionally, run the Validate a Configuration Wizard to verify that the current cluster configuration is still supportable. When you run the Validate a Configuration Wizard, ensure that the storage tests you select can be run on an online failover cluster. Several of the storage tests cause loss of service on the clustered disk when the tests are run. Troubleshooting Group and Resource...

Exercise Clustering the Print Services Role Using Failover Cluster Management

Fabrikam has two servers configured as a failover cluster. You have to cluster the Print Services role on these two servers. The Print Services role already is installed on VAN-SRV6A and VAN-SRV6B. The main tasks for this exercise are to Start the virtual machines, and then log on. Configure the printer disk. Cluster the Print Services role. Failover the VAN-Print clustered service from VAN-SRV6A to VAN-SRV6B. Task 1 Start the virtual machines, and then log on 1. On your host machine, click...