Test Day Tip

NAT and firewall features in Windows Server 2003 do have limitations. Make sure you understand these limitations going into the exam. For example, NAT does not work well with FTP and other protocols that hide the IP address information. NAT and firewall use the IP header to determine source and destination IP address and TCP/UDP port numbers in use. If this information is not in the IP header, NAT and firewall could have problems with the traffic.

There are limitations to NAT. NAT relies on information in the IP header and TCP header of packets. If IP information or port information is not stored in the header, the way it is in most TCP/IP traffic, NAT may not be able to translate the traffic stream. FTP, PPTP, and other forms of tunneled traffic can cause problems for NAT. A NAT editor is needed to translate FTP traffic through a NAT system, for example.

Typical NAT traffic is translated based on TCP port, UDP port, and IP addresses listed in the TCP header, UDP header, and IP header, respectively. NAT editors are special software components that translate traffic that contains TCP, UDP, or IP information in places other than their respective headers. Microsoft provides built-in NAT editor functions for some common protocols like FTP and PPTP within their recent operating system offerings.

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