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Web Server Protected by ISA with Web Publishing

The ISA Server provides an alternate method of transmitting data to a Web server protected by a firewall. When you implement Web publishing, the data received by the ISA Server is decrypted and inspected by application filters. These application filters, such as URLScan, inspect Web traffic for worm attacks or other Web-based attacks against a Web server.

The Many Servers Scenario

Imagine that we're designing the DNS architecture for Megabucks Corporation, a firm with 2,000 employees on a single large campus. Megabucks is attached to the Internet via a few T1 lines that are always busy transmitting and receiving e-mail, Web traffic, and streaming multimedia. Every unnecessary access to the Internet creates congestion on those lines.

Securing Access to Resources with SSL

You need to be constantly aware of risks associated with giving access to users outside the company. This is especially true with Web traffic that is traversing numerous unknown and possibly unsecure networks. Network packet analyzers are constantly looking for key words and phrases such as username or password . Using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption you can make sure that authentication of the Web folders on their IIS servers is not being passed in the clear.

Active Directory Certificate Services

Infrastructure as Domain Name System (DNS) and Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers. Certificate servers enable you to issue certificates that support smart card logons, encrypt network traffic through IPsec, encrypt Web traffic by using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), and encrypt files and folders through encrypting file system (EFS). This chapter discusses the different types of certificate servers, how you can configure the settings of a certificate authority (CA), how you can manage certificate templates, the options you have for configuring certificate enrollment, and the technologies available in Windows Server 2008 to manage certificate revocation.

Answers to Review Questions

HTTP uses port 80 for standard web traffic, and HTTPS uses port 443 for SSL protocol secured traffic. 16. A, B, C. SSL can be used for more than just encrypting the web traffic. It also prevents replays through the MIC and authenticates the server to the client system.

Deploy Manage and Configure SSL Certificates

SSL is primarily used to secure data sent over networks. The Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS) protocol, used for securing Web traffic, encrypts all headers, URLs, cookies, and of course data submitted to the Web site. Any Web application that requests the transmission of confidential data, such as credit card information, over the Internet, needs to use SSL to make sure that intercepted transmissions are not easily read by malicious users.

Public Key Infrastructure

PKI is used in a number of different ways in Windows Server 2003. For example, it can be used to secure a wireless network, as we're discussing. It is also used to implement secure e-mail via S MIME and to secure Web traffic via SSL and TLS, all discussed earlier.You can use PKI to implement smart cards for strong authentication as well as to implement EFS and IPSec.

Correct Answers A B and C

Correct Port 80 is the port used by the HTTP protocol. Creating this filter means that Web site traffic can be received and transmitted without requiring secured IPSec packets. Without this connection, Web site traffic would be encrypted via IPSec, limiting it to authorized users and locking out the potential customers.

Logging considerations

The information in this log file is primarily intended for nonsecurity-related analysis of Web site traffic. For example, members of the marketing team could use this information to determine which partner Web site was directing the highest number of users to the site. You should be familiar with IIS log files, however, because Web sites are a frequent point of entry for attackers, and analyzing IIS log files can reveal that you were attacked by a malicious user, the method the attacker used, and information about the attacker's identity.

Incoming and Outgoing Traffic Filtering

Firewall rules are configured for incoming and outgoing traffic to determine which packets will be allowed and which will be blocked. When incoming traffic is blocked, an entry is made into the firewall log and the packet is discarded. The firewall options are numerous and we'll look briefly at these options.

Windows Firewall and Post Setup Security Updates PSSU

Windows Firewall, an enhanced version of Internet Connection Firewall (ICF), first appeared in Windows XP Service Pack 2. Like ICF, Windows Firewall allows you to block unsolicited incoming traffic destined for the local machine. Unlike ICF, you can configure Windows Firewall in Control Panel.

Objective Answers

Correct The well-known TCP port number 110 is used by Post Office Protocol, version 3 (POP3), which clients use to retrieve their messages from e-mail servers. The fact that the Mirrored option is disabled and the Destination Address is My IP Address means that this filter list isolates only the incoming traffic from the POP3 server. C. Incorrect The fact that the Mirrored option is disabled and the Destination Address is My IP Address means that this filter list is designed to isolate the incoming traffic, but the specification of the TCP protocol and a port number means that the filter list isolates the traffic of a single application, not all Internet traffic.

Hardware and Protocols

NLB controls the distribution on a per-connection basis for TCP, and a per-datagram basis for UDP, by filtering the incoming traffic before anything gets to the TCP IP protocol software. Only the TCP and UDP protocols within TCP IP are handled, and all controls are applied on a per-port basis.

Clustering and Load Balancing Defined

Clustering is a means of providing High Availability. Clustering is a group of machines acting as a single entity to provide resources and services to the network. In time of failure, a failover will occur to a system in that group that will maintain availability of those resources to the network. You can be alerted to the failure, repair the system failure, and bring the system back online to participate as a provider of services once more. You learn about many forms of clustering in this chapter. Clustering can allow for failover to other systems and it can also allow for load balancing between systems. Load balancing is using a device, which can be a server or an appliance, to balance the load of traffic across multiple servers waiting to receive that traffic. The device sends incoming traffic based on an algorithm to the most underused machine or spreads the traffic out evenly among all machines that are on at the time. A good example of using this technology would be if you had a...

Remote Access Methods

Off the Record A dial-up connection was once a dedicated circuit on the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). There would literally be a pair of copper wires, connected by a series of analog switches, that connected the dial-up client to the server. Telephone companies are constantly striving to become more efficient, and today telephone communications are carried digitally. In fact, it's entirely possible that the only points in which your dial-up connection will actually be a dedicated circuit are between the two modems and the telephone company. After it reaches the telephone company, your traffic might be carried in Internet Protocol (IP) packets, and it might cross the public Internet

Limiting Network Usage by Web Sites

By default, IIS allows Web site visitors to consume as much network bandwidth as is available. When you have a lot of remote users or a slow Internet connection, visitors can consume all available bandwidth, preventing users of the internal network from accessing the Internet for Web browsing and e-mail. While it is easy to place limits on the maximum number of people who can concurrently connect to the Web site and the maximum amount of network bandwidth a Web site (virtual server) can consume, there is a catch internal and external (Internet) users are treated the same. Therefore, it's best not to apply this feature to the http companyweb site, and you should think about your usage patterns before applying it to the Default Web Site as well.

Network Load Balancing

Network load balancing (NLB) distributes traffic between multiple hosts based on each host's current load. Each new client is directed to the host under the least load. It is also possible to configure NLB to send traffic proportionally to hosts within the cluster. For example, in a cluster with four hosts, you could configure an NLB cluster to send 40 percent of incoming traffic to one host and split the remaining 60 percent across the other three hosts. All editions of Windows Server 2008 support NLB.

Multicast versus Unicast Modes

Whether you use one mode or the other, you should use two NICs on each member. One advantage of doing so is that it allows you to configure one card to receive incoming traffic and the other to send outgoing traffic, making your cluster members even more responsive. You can also ensure that if your NLB cluster is only the front end of a complex clustering architecture such as the one illustrated in Figure 9-2, all back end communications are handled by the non-clustered NIC.

Configuring NLB Port Rules

Port Rule The Nodes The Cluster

For example, you might configure four hosts to be part of an NLB cluster for a Web site. One of these hosts might also function as an SMTP server. Although you want the cluster to balance incoming Web traffic, you want only one host to handle SMTP traffic. To support this configuration, you create two port rules. The first would direct Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) traffic on ports 80 and 443 to all hosts in the cluster. The second port rule would direct

Preshared key authentication

The preshared key authentication method uses symmetrical encryption to authenticate the hosts, which itself is very secure, but which requires that any two hosts communicating have been configured with a predefined password. Unfortunately, this key is not stored securely on the IPSec hosts. The authentication key is stored in plaintext format in the system registry and hex-encoded in Active Directory-based IPSec policy. If attackers can access your registry, they can find your preshared key, which would allow them to decrypt your traffic or impersonate one of the hosts. Use preshared key authentication only when no stronger method can be used.

Round Robin Functionality

As mentioned earlier in the chapter, the DNS system has some load-balancing features, namely, round-robin functionality. It may be helpful to distribute incoming connections equally between a few network hosts, such as web servers. If one web server is getting hit with lots of requests, it may be serving pages slowly or may even be rejecting or timing out some of the requests. In this case, one solution may be to set up a twin web server box and load-balance incoming traffic using DNS (this is also known as poor man's load balancing). You have to figure out a way of referencing two different servers using the same FQDN if you create two separate A records pointing to different IP addresses, the DNS server will simply return the first record it matches during its zone search.

More Info Policydriven Network Access

By default, all IPv4 and IPv6 incoming traffic is blocked unless it is a response to a previous outgoing request from the computer (solicited traffic) or specifically allowed by a rule created to allow that traffic . All outgoing traffic is allowed by default, except where service-hardening rules prevent standard services from communicating in unexpected ways . You can allow traffic based on port numbers, IPv4 or IPv6 addresses, the path and name of an application, the name of a service that is running on the computer, or other criteria.

Network Traffic Control with ISA Server

ISA Server enables you to control network access for both outgoing and incoming traffic. To control outgoing traffic, you can use access policies and rules. To control incoming traffic, you can use a combination of IP packet filters, application filters, and intrusion detection filters. Controlling incoming You can use IP packet filters, application filters, and intrusion detectors to traffic control incoming traffic. Intrusion detection filters. Intrusion detection filters analyze all incoming traffic for specific attacks and known intrusions. ISA Server includes several intrusion detection filters, including

Configuring Windows Firewall with Advanced Security

Incoming traffic is blocked automatically unless it is a response to a host request (called solicited traffic) or unless it specifically has been allowed. Specific traffic can be allowed by configuring firewall rules to allow specific traffic by configuring the port number, application name, service name, and other settings.

Caution Do Not Use All As A Name

Set In the netsh advfirewall consec context, the set command is used as the set rule command to modify an existing connection security rule identified by name or found by matching the criteria specified. Criteria that precede the keyword new identify the rule(s) to be modified. Criteria that follow the keyword new indicate properties that are modified or added. For example, the following command modifies the action in the Only Domain Members rule so that the criteria for incoming traffic are requested rather than required.

Practice Configuring IP Security Policies

In this exercise, you will configure packet filtering on Computerl to allow all traffic from the 192.168.1.0 network, but to allow only Web requests from other networks. First, you will create two IP filter lists to identify internal traffic and Web traffic from any network. 5. In the Name field, type External Web Traffic. 8. On the IP Traffic Source page, click the Source Address list, and then click Any IP Address. Click Next. Figure 8.10 Configuring an IP filter list for Web traffic Figure 8.10 Configuring an IP filter list for Web traffic 16. On the IP Traffic Source page, click the Source Address list, and then click A Specific IP Subnet. Type the IP address and subnet mask in the provided fields. For example, if you are using the class C 192.168.1.0 private network, type 192.168.1.0 in the IP Address field, and then type 255.255.255.0 in the Subnet Mask field. Click Next. At this point, you have added an IP filter list and a filter action. However, this does not change the...

Troubleshooting the Windows Server DNS Server

Your Web server is running Windows Server 2003 Web Edition. It hosts a Web application that is used by people over the Internet.You log all of your traffic to a log file so that you can see who has been connecting.You look through your log files and see that one IP address has connected and disconnected 3500 times in the last two hours.You are worried that this person might be trying to hack your Web server.You need to find the host computer name that goes along with this IP address.Which of the following tools could you use (Choose all that apply.)

Managing Filter Lists and Actions

There are two default IP filters set when you install Windows Server 2003 one for all IP traffic and one for all Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) traffic. Let's say that you're a little more selective, though. Perhaps you want to create an IPSec policy to secure web traffic between your company and its law firm. You'd first have to open the Manage IP Filter Lists And Filter Actions dialog box, at which point you'd see the Manage IP Filter Lists tab shown in Figure 4.11.

Windows Firewall Changes for MMC Tools

Windows Firewall in SP1 by default blocks incoming traffic on port 445. This port is used by many of the administrative tools for remote management. If you receive one of the following error messages when attempting remote management, this firewall policy could be the culprit

Exercise Creating an MMC Console and Viewing the Default Policies

In the Name text box, type All Web Traffic, and then click Add. The IP Filter Wizard appears. 14. Click Next to accept the default Mirrored. Match Packets With The Exact Opposite Source And Destination Addresses check box. The IP Traffic Source page appears. 20. In the IP Filter List page of the Security Rule Wizard, select the All Web Traffic filter list you just created, and then click Next. The Filter Action page appears.

Using Cryptographic Accelerators for SSL

As the increase in Web server usage swept the Internet, new uses for Web servers were appearing. Traditional brick and mortar companies were doing business on the Internet. Security for these business transactions became a strict requirement. Companies turned to encryption to offer a secure method of doing business on the Internet. SSL, or Secure Socket Layer, became something of a de facto standard for encrypting Web traffic. The use of SSL requires the Web server to perform certain cryptographic processes on data. These processes take up CPU cycles and can quickly bog down a Web server. To continue to scale Web services with SSL, administrators continued to add more and more Web servers. The industry quickly realized that this was not an optimal solution and SSL accelerators were created. By offloading cryptographic processes onto a dedicated hardware device the CPU is freed up to perform other tasks. SSL encryption loads can reduce the performance of a Web server by as much as 75 ....

Creating a Pilot Deployment

The one element that is extremely difficult to duplicate adequately in a lab environment, no matter what your budget, is network activity. While there are ways to generate traffic on a lab network, it is hard to duplicate actual working conditions. For this reason, it is a good idea to follow up your lab testing with a pilot deployment. A pilot deployment is an implementation of your actual configuration on the production network in a limited and controlled fashion.

Securing Virtual Private Networks

When a VPN is required for access to the corporate network from the wireless network subnet, all traffic between the two networks is encrypted within the VPN tunnel. If you are using static WEP, a VPN will ensure a higher degree of confidentiality for your traffic. Even if the WEP encryption is cracked, the hacker would then have to crack the VPN encryption to see the corporate traffic, which is a much more difficult task. If a wireless laptop is stolen and the theft unreported, the thief would have to know the laptop user's credentials to gain access to the VPN.

Design Activity Troubleshooting Lab

There are several ways you can determine this. First, Network Monitor has revealed that traffic is not encrypted, which is a sign that either Main Mode or Quick Mode negotiations have failed. Second, the Main Mode Statistics counters in the IP Security Monitor snap-in are not incrementing in the way they would if Main Mode negotiations were succeeding. You could also review the Oakley.log, which would reveal that Computer1 applied the Server (Request Security) policy to the incoming traffic, but that negotiations with Computer2 failed.

Dialup Connections

We'll separate dial-up connections into two categories simple dial-up, by which we mean a single computer that connects to the Internet occasionally, when a user manually initiates a connection and dial-on-demand, which means one or more computers that connect to the Internet automatically whenever they generate traffic bound for the Internet. Often, the device that makes this dial-on-demand connectivity possible is a small dial-up router with an analog modem or ISDN interface.

Detailed Rules

By default, Windows Firewall with Advanced Security is enabled for both inbound and outbound traffic. The default settings block most incoming traffic and allow outgoing traffic. This version of the firewall software enables you to configure detailed rules for filtering any Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

WEP Attacks

So how do you stop it Well, you need to set some monitoring of your own. One way to beat those trying to break in is to do your best to secure your wireless network and then use AirSnort or some other tool to watch the network. Monitoring your traffic can help you identify when the traffic is higher than established baselines and let you know that something fishy might be going on. Of course, even then, it might not be enough, so what are the next steps On to the next section for the answer.

LTPIPSec Tunneling

L2TP is much more flexible than PPTP, but it's also more complicated. It was designed to be a general-purpose tunneling protocol not limited to VPN use. L2TP itself doesn't offer any kind of security. When you use L2TP, you're setting up an unencrypted, unauthenticated tunnel. Doing so over the Internet would be dangerous because anyone who wanted to could read your traffic. To address this issue, you can use L2TP in conjunction with IPSec, which was discussed in Chapter 4, Managing IP Security. The overall flow of an L2TP + IPSec tunnel session looks a little different from that of a PPTP session because IPSec security is different. Here's how the L2TP IPSec combination works

Security Filters

A security filter ties security protocols to a particular network address. The filter contains the source and destination addresses involved (using a netmask for either specific hosts or networks), the protocol used, and the source and destination ports allowed for TCP and UDP traffic. For example, you can define a filter (as you will see later in this chapter) that specifies exactly what kind of IPSec negotiations you're willing to allow when a machine in your domain contacts a machine in the microsoft.com domain. Recall that IPSec connections have two sides inbound and outbound. That means that for each connection, you need to have two filters one inbound and one outbound. The inbound filter is applied when a remote machine requests security on a connection, and the outbound filter is applied before sending traffic to a remote machine.

Sniffing

Originally conceived as a legitimate network and traffic analysis tool, sniffing remains one of the most effective techniques in attacking a wireless network, whether it's to map the network as part of a target reconnaissance, to grab passwords, or to capture unencrypted data.

Whats New in IIS

Since HTTP.sys consumes all incoming traffic, inetinfo.exe has less to worry. 0 Answer A is incorrect because application pool is a new concept in IIS 6.0.They are used by HTTP.sys to assign resources to Web sites. Answer B is incorrect because flexible caching is the mechanism of caching at kernel level using HTTP.sys. Answer C is incorrect because HTTP.sys specializes in incoming traffic and saving resources for the IIS process (inetinfo.exe).

Delete

Add In the netsh advfirewall consec context, the add command is used as the add rule command to add a connection security rule that defines IPsec requirements for network connections . For example, the following command creates a rule that you could use in a domain isolation scenario in which incoming traffic is permitted from other domain member computers only

NLB cluster concepts

Load-balancing software is implemented as an NDIS-packed filter driver named WLBS.SYS. As far as the protocol stack is concerned, NLB is located between the network adapter driver and the network layer occupied by IP. NLB monitors incoming traffic and checks its source and IP addresses, the transport layer protocol, and the destination port. Their values affect NLB behavior. Load balancing does not, however, adjust dynamically to the changing utilization levels of cluster members (a feature available in Component Load Balancing clusters, discussed later in this chapter). This makes proper design critical for optimal scalability and performance. Host parameters, such as priority ID, initial state, and dedicated IP address and subnet mask, are set individually on each node. Incoming traffic is load balanced according to one or more rules. Known as port rules, they include several parameters In addition to a dedicated IP address, each node has a unique numeric value assigned during the...

NLB Traffic Planning

In the fourth section, I am highlighting the front-end connections to the NLB cluster nodes. This would be the connection to the NIC cards that have a Virtual IP address enabled. Figure 7-2 shows the IP address view of Figure 7-1. The Virtual IP address is 12.1.3.10 and this front-end network must be at 100 Mbps full-duplex if possible. This is where most of your traffic will be on the Cluster. Make sure the NIC cards on your NLB hosts are optimized with the best possible drivers, the best possible cards and set at 100 Mbps full-duplex hardcoded to eliminate auto-negotiation problems. Auto-negotiation is what a port on a switch or a NIC card does to adjust to the line speed present. In other words, if you have a network Switch with 10 100-Mbps ports and NICs that will work at that speed, auto-negotiation will make a best effort to adjust to speed that both are willing to operate and communicate on. Every port that auto-negotiates must advertise the modes in which it is able and...

SSL encryption

Though IPSec can be configured to encrypt almost any type of network communication, IIS supports Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure (HTTPS), an extension to HTTP that provides encryption by using a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate. If you host your own certification authority, you can create your own SSL certificate. However, if your certification authority is not a public authority that is trusted by your visitors' Web browsers, visitors will receive a warning message that your certificate is not from a trusted authority. To avoid this warning message, purchase an SSL certificate from a certification authority that is trusted by default by popular Web browsers.

Packet filtering

By default, most firewalls block everything that you haven't specifically allowed. Routers with filtering capabilities are a simplified example of a firewall. Administrators often configure them to allow all outbound connections from the internal network but to block all incoming traffic. So a user on the internal network would be able to download e-mail without a problem, but an administrator would need to customize the router configuration to allow users to connect to their work computers from their homes by using Remote Desktop.

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